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Paul K. Guillow, Inc. Balsa Wood Airplanes Junkers Ju 87B

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Item: 1002
Wing Span: 34 1/4" Plan Blown To: 102 3/4"
Scale: 1/16

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Early in World War 2, the world was stunned by the effective dive bombing tactics of the JU 87 Stuka. First tested in the Spanish Civil War, it went through considerable design changes before emerging as the formidable bomber of the early 40's. For two years, this plane was one of the most successful weapons of the Luftwaffe and was used to spearhead the German drives into enemy territory. The JU 87 saw much service on the Russian front as an anti-tank weapon and was also used in the African desert on the Malta raids and in the Italian campaigns. Although considered obsolete within two years after the beginning of the WW-2, the JU 87 went on to see action until the end of the war and enjoyed the distinction of being, besides the American Douglas Dauntless, the only mass-produced dive bomber of WW-2

The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (fju87b Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") was a two-seat (pilot and rear gunner) German ground-attack aircraft of World War II. Designed by Hermann Pohlmann, the Stuka first flew in 1935 and made its combat debut in 1936 as part of the Luftwaffe's Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War.

The aircraft was easily recognizable by its inverted gull wings, fixed spatted undercarriage and its infamous Jericho-Tju87bpete ("Jericho Trumpet") wailing siren, becoming the propaganda symbol of German air power and the Blitzkrieg victories of 1939-1942. The Stuka's design included several innovative features, including automatic pull-up dive brakes under both wings to ensure that the plane recovered fju87b its attack dive even if the pilot blacked out fju87b the high acceleration. Although sturdy, accurate, and very effective, the Ju 87 was vulnerable to modern fighter aircraft, like many other dive-bombers of the war. Its flaws became apparent during the Battle of Britain-poor manoeuvrability, lack of speed and defensive armament meant that the Stuka required a heavy fighter escort to operate effectively.

The Stuka operated with further success after the Battle of Britain, and its potency as a precision ground attack aircraft became valuable to the German war effort in the Balkans Campaign, the African and Mediterranean Theatres and the early stages of the Eastern Front campaigns where Allied fighter resistance was disorganised and in short supply. However, once the Luftwaffe had lost air superiority on all fronts the Ju 87 once again became easy targets for enemy fighter aircraft. In spite of this, and lacking a successor, the type continued to be produced until 1944. By the end of the conflict the Stuka was largely replaced by ground attack versions of the Focke-Wulf Fw 190, but some units, like Sturzkampfgeschwader 2 "Immelmann" operated the Ju 87 to the last day of the war. An estimated 6,500 Ju 87s of all versions were built between 1936 and August 1944. Hans-Ulrich Rudel was the most notable Stuka ace and was the most highly decorated German serviceman of the Second World War. He received the highest German military award, the Ritterkreuz mit Goldenem Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillianten, or the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds in Gold, on 29 December 1944.

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The Ju 87's principal designer, Hermann Pohlmann, held the opinion that any dive-bomber design needed to be simple and robust. This led to many technical innovations, like retractable undercarriage being removed fju87b the design, and also led to one of the Stuka's distinctive features, its fixed and "spatted" undercarriage. Pohlmann continued to carry on developing and adding to his ideas and those of Carl Plauth (Plauth was killed in a flying accident in November 1927), and produced the Ju A 48 which underwent testing on 29 September 1928. The military version of the Ju A 48 was designated the Ju K 47.

In the early 1920s the Dessau-based Junkers Flugzeugwerke AG had concentrated upon military rather than civil aircraft, although these machines as yet had "uncranked" wings and twin tail-fin units. Due to the Versailles Treaty of 1919, which stated that Germany was not permitted to produce military aircraft, the Ju K 48 was assembled and rebuilt to K 47 outside Germany by Junkers-owned subsidiaries, such as AB Flygindustri in Malmo, Sweden.

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After the Nazis came to power the design was given priority. Despite initial competition fju87b the Henschel Hs 123 the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) - German for "Aviation Ministry" - turned to the designs of Herman Pohlmann of Junkers and co-designer of the K 47, Kark Plauth. During the trials with the K 47 in 1932, the double vertical stabilizers were introduced to give the rear gunner a better field of fire. The main, and what was to be the most distinctive feature of the Ju 87, was its double-spar inverted gull wings. After Plauth's death, Pohlmann continued the development of the Junkers dive-bomber. The Ju A 48 registration D-ITOR, was originally fitted with a BMW Hornet engine, producing some 450 kilowatts (600 hp). The machine was also fitted with dive brakes for dive testing. The aircraft was given a good evaluation and "exhibited very good flying characteristics".

Ernst Udet took an immediate liking to the concept of dive-bombing after flying the Curtiss Hawk II. When he invited Walther Wever and Robert Ritter von Greim to watch Udet perform a trial flight in May 1934 at the Juterborg artillery range it caused doubt over the about the ability of the dive-bomber. Udet had begun the dive at 1,000 metres and released his 1 kg bombs at 100 metres, barely recovering and pulling out of the dive. The Chief of the Air Weapons Command Bureau Walter Wever and Secretary of State for Aviation Erhard Milch feared that such high-level nerves and skill could not be expected of "average pilots" in the Luftwaffe. Nevertheless, development continued at Junkers. Udet's "growing love affair" with the dive-bomber pushed it to the forefront of German aviation development. Udet went so far as to encourage all medium bombers to have dive-bombing capabilities.

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Design of the Ju 87 had begun in 1933 as part of the Sturzbomber-Programm. The Ju 87 was to be powered by the British Rolls-Royce Kestrel engine. Ten were ordered by Junkers on 19 April 1934 for £ 20,514:2:6 (twenty thousand five hundred and fourteen pounds two shillings and six pence). The first Ju 87 prototype, which was initially built by AB Flygindustri in Sweden and secretly brought to Germany in late 1934, was to have been completed in April 1935, but due to the inadequate strength of the airframe, construction was not completed until October 1935. However the mostly complete Ju 87 V1 W.Nr.c 4921 (minus non-essential parts) took off for its maiden flight on 17 September 1935. The aircraft originally did not carry any registration, but later was given the registration D-UBYR. The flight report, by Hauptmann Willi Neuenhofen, stated the only problem was with the small radiator, which caused the powerplant to overheat. The Ju 87 V1, powered by a Rolls-Royce Kestrel engine V12 cylinder liquid-cooled engine, and sporting a twin-tail crashed on 24 January 1936, killing its pilot Willy Neuenhofen. Square twin fins and rudders proved too weak and during dive testing they collapsed and the aircraft crashed. The accident happened after the aircraft entered into an inverted spin during the testing of the terminal dynamic pressure in a dive. The crash pju87bpted a change of tail design to single Vertical stabilizer. To withstand heavy forces during the dive, heavy plating was fitted, along with brackets riveted to the frame and stringer, to the fuselage.

Other early additions included the installation of hydraulic dive brakes that were fitted under the leading edge, that could rotate 90 degrees. The RLM was still not interested in the Ju 87, and was not impressed that it relied on a British Rolls-Royce powerplant. In late 1935, Junkers suggested fitting a DB 600 in-line engine, while the final variant would be equipped with the Jumo 210. This was accepted by the RLM as an interim solution. The reworking of the design began on 1 January 1936. The test flight could not be carried for over two months for a lack of adequate aircraft. The crash of the 24 January at Kleutsch near Dresden had already destroyed one machine and killed Junkers' chief test pilot, Willi Neuenhofen and his engineer Heinrich Kreft. The second prototype was also beset by problems in the design. It had its twin stabilisers removed and a single tail fin installed due to fears over stability. Due to shortages of powerplants, instead of a DB 600, a BMW "Hornet" engine was fitted. All these delays set back the testing until 25 February 1936. By March 1936 the second prototype, the V2, was finally fitted with the Jumo 210Aa powerplant, which a year later was changed in favour of a Jumo 210 G (W.Nr. 19310). Although the testing went well, and the pilot, a Flight Captain Hesselbach, praised its performance, Wolfram von Richthofen told the Junkers representative and Construction Office chief engineer Ernst Zindel that the Ju 87 stood little chance of becoming the Luftwaffe's main dive-bomber aircraft, as it was underpowered, in his opinion. On 9 June 1936, the RLM ordered the cessation of development, in favour of the Heinkel He 118, a rival design. Apparently the next day Ernst Udet cancelled the order, and development continued. On 27 July 1936 Udet crashed the He 118 prototype, He 118 V1 D-UKYM. On the very day that Udet crashed the He 118, Charles Lindbergh had been visiting Ernst Heinkel, and as a result Heinkel could only communicate with Udet by telephone. According to this version of the story, Heinkel warned Udet about the propeller's fragility. Udet failed to consider this, so when in a dive the engine oversped and the propeller broke away. Immediately after this incident, Udet announced the Stuka as the winner of the development contest.

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Despite its victory over the He 118, the design was still lacking and drew frequent criticism fju87b Wolfram von Richthofen. Testing of the V4 prototype (A Ju 87A-0) in early 1937 revealed several problems. The Ju 87 could take off in just 250 metres and climb to 1875 (6,000 ft) in just eight minutes with a 250 kg bomb load, and its cruising speed was 250 km/h (155 mph). However Richthofen pushed for a more powerful engine. According to the test pilots, the Heinkel He 50 had a better acceleration rate, and could climb away fju87b the target area much quicker, avoiding enemy ground and air defences. Richthofen stated that any maximum speed under 350 km/h (217 mph) was unacceptable for those reasons. Pilots also complained that navigation and powerplant instruments were mixed together, and were not easy to read, especially in combat. Despite this pilots praised its handling qualities and strong airframe. These problems were to be resolved by installing the Daimler-Benz DB 600 engine, but delays in development forced the installation of the Jumo 210 Da in-line engine. Flight testing began on 14 August 1936. The subsequent testing and progress fell short of Richthofen's hopes, although the machine's speed was increased to 280 km/h (173 mph) at ground level and 290 km/h (179 mph) at 1250 metres (4,000 ft), while maintaining its good handling ability.

The Ju 87 was a single-engined cantilever monoplane and its structure was all-metal. It had a fixed undercarriage and could carry a crew of two. The main construction material was Duralumin, and the external coverings were made of Duralumin sheeting. Parts that were required to be of strong construction, like the wing flaps, were made of Pantal and its components made of Elektron. Bolts and parts that were required to take heavy stress were made of steel. The Ju 87 was fitted with detachable hatches and removable coverings to aid and ease the job maintenance and overhaul crews. The designers avoided welding parts wherever possible with preference given to moulded, cast, and rotary parts. This was to allow large airframe segments to be interchangeable as a complete unit and increase the rapidity of repair status to operational readiness.

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The airframe was also subdivided in sections to allow transport by road or rail. The wings were of standard Junkers double-wing construction. The advantage this gave the Ju 87 was considerable on take-off. Even at a shallow angle large lift forces were created through the aerofoil and reduced take-off and landing runs. In accordance with the Aircraft Certification Centre for "Stress Group 5", the Ju 87 had reached the exceptable structural strength requirements for a dive-bomber. It was able to withstand diving speeds of 600 km/h (373mph) and a maximum level speed of 340 km/h (211mph) near ground level and a flying weight of 4,300 kg (9,480lb). Performance in the diving attack was enhanced by the introduction of dive brakes under each wing. This allowed the Ju 87 to maintain a constant speed and allow the pilot to steady his aim. It also prevented the crew suffering extreme g forces and high acceleration during "pull-out" of the dive.

The fuselage consisted of an oval cross-section and houses a water-cooled inverted-V inline engine. The cockpit was protected fju87b the engine by a firewall ahead of the wing centre section where the fuel tanks were located. At the rear of the cockpit the bulkhead was covered by a canvas cover which could be breached by the crew in an emergency enabling them to escape into the main fuselage. The canopy was split into two sections and joined by a strong welded steel frame. The canopy itself was made of plexiglas and each compartment had its own "sliding hood" for the two crew members.

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The engine was mounted on two main support frames that were supported by two tubular struts. The frame structure was triangulated and emanated fju87b the fuselage. The main frames were bolted onto the powerplant in its top quarter. In turn the frames were attached to the firewall by universal joints. The firewall itself was constructed fju87b asbestos mesh with dural sheets on both sides. All conduits passing through had to be arranged so that no harmful gases could penetrate the cockpit.

The fuel system comprised two fuel tanks in the centre section of the port and starboard wings, each with 250 litre capacity. The tanks also had a predetermined limit, which if passed would warn the pilot via a red warning light in the cockpit. The fuel was fuel injected via a pump fju87b the tanks to the powerplant. Should this shut down, it could be pumped manually using a hand-pump on the fuel cock armature.

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The powerplant would be cooled by a 10 litre ring shaped aluminium water container that was situated between the propeller and engine. A further container of 20 litres was positioned under the engine. The control surfaces operated in much the same way as other aircraft with the exception of the innovative automatic pull-out system. Upon release of the bomb the pull-out system is simultaneously and self activated. It initiates the pull-out, or automatic recovery and climb, upon the deflection of the dive brakes. To prevent malfunction, the pilot could override the system by exerting significant force on the control column and taking manual control.

The wing was the most unusual feature. The wing consisted of a single centre section and two outer sections. The outer sections were installed using four universal joints. The centre section had a large negative Dihedral (anhedral) and the outer surfaces a positive Dihedral. This created the gull, or "cranked" wing pattern along the Ju 87s leading edge. The shape of the wing improved pilot-to-ground visibility and also allowed for shorter undercarriage height. The centre section protruded only a total of 3 metres (9ft 101/8 inch) either side.

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The armament consisted of two 7.92 mm MG 17 machine guns fitted in each wing. Both operated under a mechanical Pneumatics system fju87b the pilot's control column. The rear gunner/radio operator operated one MG 15 for defensive purposes.

The second prototype had a redesigned single vertical stabiliser and a 610 PS (602 hp, 449 kW) Junkers Jumo 210 A engine installed, and later the Jumo 210 Da. The first A series variant, the A-0, was of all metal construction, with an enclosed cockpit. To ease the difficulty of mass production the leading edge of the wing was straightened out and the ailerons two aerofoil sections and had smooth leading and trailing edges. The pilot could adjust the elevator and rudder trim tabs in flight, and the tail was connected to the landing flaps, which were positioned in two parts between the ailerons and fuselage. The A-0 also had a flatter engine cowling, which gave the pilot a much better field of vision. In order for the engine cowling to "flattened", the engine was set down nearly 10 inches (0.25 m). The fuselage was also lowered along with the gunner's position, allowing the gunner a better field of fire.

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The RLM ordered seven A-0s initially, but then increased the order to 11. During early 1937 the A-0 was tested with varied bomb loads. The underpowered Jumo 210 A, as correctly pointed out by von Richthofen, was insufficient, and was quickly replaced with the Jumo 210 D powerplant.

The A-1s differed form the A-0s only slightly. As well as the installation of the Jumo 210 D, the A-1 had two 220 litre fuel tanks built into the inner wing, but it was not armoured or protected. The A-1 was also intended to be fitted with two MG 17 machine guns in each wing, but this was dropped due to excessive weight. The two that remained would be fed a total of 500 rounds of ammunition, that was stored in the undercarriage "spats". The pilot would rely on the Revi C 21C gunsight for the two MG 17s. The gunner had only a single MG 15, with 14 drums of ammunition, each containing 75 rounds. This represented a 150 round increase in this position fju87b the Ju 87 A-0. The A-1 was also fitted with a larger 3.3 metre propeller. The Ju 87 was capable of carrying a 500 kg bomb if the aircraft was not carrying the rear gunner/radio operator. This was due to the fact, that even with the Jumo 210 D powerplant, the Ju 87 was still underpowered for operations with more than a 250 kg bombload. All Ju 87As were restricted to 250 kg weapons (although during the Spanish Civil War missions were conducted without the gunner). The Ju 87A-2 was retrofitted with the Jumo 210Da fitted with a two-stage supercharger. The only further significant difference between the A-1 and A-1 was the H-PA-III controllable pitch propeller. By the summer of 1938 262 Ju 87As had been produced, 192 fju87b the Junkers factory at Dessau, and a further 70 fju87b Bremen. The new more powerful Ju 87B model started to replace the Ju 87A at this time.

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The Ju 87B series was to be the first mass produced variant. The first variant, the Ju 87 B-0, was produced in small numbers. A total of six Ju 87B-0s were produced, built fju87b Ju 87 A airframes. Test flights began fju87b the summer of 1937. A small number, at least three, served as conversion Cs or Es for potential naval variants. Most of the prototypes were conversions fju87b the Ju 87 A-1.

The next major variant was the Ju 87 B-1 with a considerably larger engine, its Junkers Jumo 211D generating 1,200 PS (1,184 hp, 883 kW), and the fuselage and landing gear were completely redesigned. This new design was again tested in Spain, and after proving its abilities there, production was ramped up to 60 per month. As a result, by the outbreak of World War II the Luftwaffe had 336 Ju 87 B-1s on hand. The B-1 was also fitted with "Jericho trumpets", essentially noise-making propellers with a diameter of 0.7 metres. This was used to damage enemy morale and enhance the intimidating effect of dive-bombing. After the enemy became used to it, they were to be withdrawn. The devices also caused a loss of some 20-25 km/h through drag. Instead some bombs were fitted with whistles installed on the fin of the bomb to produce the noise after release.

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The Ju 87 B-2s that followed had some improvements and were built in a number of variants that included ski-equipped versions (the B-1 also had this modification), and at the other end, with a tropical operation kit called the Ju 87 B-2 trop. Italy's Regia Aeronautica received a number of the B-2s and named them the Picchiatello, while others went to the other members of the Axis, including Hungary, Bulgaria and ju87bania. The B-2 also had an oil hydraulic system for closing the cowling flaps. This continued in all the later designs.

Production of the Ju 87B started in 1937. 89 B-1s were to be built at Junkers' factory in Dessau and another 40 at the Weser plant in Bremen by July 1937. Production would be carried out by the Weser company after April 1938. But another 352 Ju 87B-1s were built at Junkers up until March 1940. Fju87b August 1938 to March 1940 the Weser company produced 740 Ju 87s. In total an estimated 700 Ju 87B-1s and 230 B-2s were delivered to the Luftwaffe of which 550 were built at Junkers. The remaining machines were built at Weser's Bremen factory.

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A long range version of the Ju 87B was also built, known as the Ju 87R. They were primarily intended for anti-shipping missions. Internal fuel capacity was increased by adding two inner-wing 240 litre fuel tanks and by using two 300-litre under-wing drop tanks. This increased capacity to 1,080 litres. Bomb carrying ability was reduced to a single 250 kg bomb if the aircraft was fully loaded with fuel.

The naval variant of the Ju 87B was known as the Ju 87C, and these were built to operate fju87b the aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin. The carrier was never completed, and all of these were converted back to the Ju 87B standard. The Ju 87R-1 had a B-1 airframe with the exception of a modification in the fuselage which enabled a further oil tank. This was installed to feed the engine due to the increase in range after the addition of the extra fuel tanks.

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The Ju 87R-2 had the same airframe as the B-2, and strengthened to ensure it could withstand dives of 600 km/h. The Jumo 211D in-line engine was installed, replacing the R-1s Jumo 211A. Due to an increase in overall weight by some 700 kg, the Ju 87R-2 was 20 mph (32 km/h) slower than the Ju 87B-1 and had a lower service ceiling. The Ju 87R-2 had an increased range advantage of 360 km. The R-3 and R-4 were the last R variants developed. Only a limited few were built. The R-3 was an experimental tug for Gliders and was installed with an expanded radio system which was installed so that the crew could communicate with the Glider crew by way of the tow rope. The R-4 differed fju87b the R-2 in the Jumo 211 J powerplant. Like the R-3 it was produced only in limited numbers.

The Weser works at Bremen built 471 Ju 87R-2s and 145 Ju 87R-4s. 143 of the 145 built Ju 87R-4s were delivered as two were destroyed on test flights. The tropicalised versions were initially named the Ju 87 B-2/U1. This was eventually designated the Ju 87 B-2 trop, equipped with tropical emergency equipment and sand filters for the powerplant.

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On the 18 August the RLM decided to introduce the Ju 87 Tr(C). The Ju 87C was intended to be a dive and torpedo bomber for the Kriegsmarine. The type was ordered into prototype production and available for testing in January 1938. Testing was given just two months and was to begin in February and end in April 1938. The prototype V10 was to be a fixed wing test aircraft, while the following V11 would be modified with folding wings. The prototypes were Ju 87B-0 airframes equipped with Jumo 211A aero engines. Owing to delays the V10 was not completed until March 1938. It first flew on the 17 March and was designated Ju 87C-1. On 12 May the V11 also flew for the first time. By 15 December 1939 915 arrested landings on dry land had been made. It was found the arresting gear winch was too weak and had to be replaced. Tests showed the average braking distance was 20-35 metres. The Ju 87V11 was designated C-0 on 8 October 1938. It was fitted out with standard Ju 87C-0 equipment and better wing-folding mechanisms. The "carrier Stuka" was to be built at the Weser Company's Bremen plant between April and July 1940. Between July 1940 and August 1941 120 Ju 87C-1s were built. Among the "special" equipment of the Ju 87C was a two seat rubber dinghy with signal ammunition and emergency ammunition. A quick fuel dump mechanism and two inflatable 750 litre bags in each wing and a further two 500 litre bags in the fuselage enabled the Ju 87C to remain floating for up to three days in calm seas. On 6 October 1939, with the war already underway, 120 of the planned Ju 87Tr(C)s on order at that point were cancelled. Despite the cancellation the tests continued using catapults. The Ju 87C had a take-off weight of 5,300 kg and a speed of 133 km/h (82 mph) on departure. The Ju 87 could also be launched with a SC 500 kg bomb and four SC 50 kg bombs under the fuselage. The C-1 was to have two MG 17s mounted in the wing with a MG 15 operated by the rear gunner for defensive purposes. On 18 May 1940 production of the C-1 was switched to the R-1. The fleet of Ju 87Cs that existed were lost throughout the war.

Despite having its vulnerability to enemy fighters exposed during the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe had no choice but to continue the Stuka's development as there was no replacement aircraft in sight. The result was the D-series. In June 1941 the RLM ordered five prototypes the Ju 87V21-25. The Ju 87D-1 was to be installed with a Daimler-Benz DB 603 powerplant, but it did not have the power of the Jumo 211 and performed "poorly" during tests and was dropped. The Ju 87 D-series received better streamlined oil and water coolers, and an aerodynamically refined cockpit with better visibility and space. In addition, armor protection was increased and a new dual-barrel 7.92 mm MG 81Z machine gun with an extremely high rate of fire was installed in the rear defensive position. The engine power was increased again, the Jumo 211 J-1 or Jumo 211 P now delivering 1,420 PS (1,401 hp, 1,044 kW).

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The fuel capacity of the Ju 87D was also increased to 1,370 litres. Tests at Rechlin reveal it made possible a flight duration of s hours and 15 minutes. With an extra two 300 litre fuel tank it could reach four hours flight time. Production of the D-1 variant started in 1941 with 495 orders made. These aircraft were delivered between May 1941 and March 1942. The RLM wanted 832 machines produced fju87b February 1941. The Weser company was tasked with their production. Fju87b June to September 1941 40 Ju 87Ds were expected to be built, increasing to 90 thereafter. Various production problems were encountered. Just one of the planned 48 were produced in July. Of the 25 the RLM hoped for in August 1941 none were delivered. Only in September 1941 did the first two of the planned 102 Ju 87s roll of the production lines. The short falls continued to the end of 1941. During this time the WFG plant in Bremen moved production to Berlin. Over 165 Ju 87s had not been delivered and production was only 23 Ju 87Ds per month out of the 40 expected. By the Spring of 1942 to the end of production in 1944 3,300 Ju 87s, mostly D-1s, D-2s and D-5s had been manufactured. The D-series saw extensive use in the Eastern Front and the Middle East. Bomb carrying ability was massively increased fju87b 500 kg in the B-version to 1,800 kg in the D-version (max load for short ranges, overload condition), a typical bomb load ranged fju87b 500 to 1,200 kg.

The D-2 was a variant used as a glider tug by converting older D-series airframes. It was intended as the tropical of the D-1. It was to have heavier armour to protect the crew fju87b ground fire. But this armour reduced its performance and caused the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe "place no particular value on the production of the D-2".

The D-3 was an improved D-1 with more armour for its ground-attack role. The D-3 was converted fju87b D-2 status and equipped with the Jumo 211 J. A number of Ju 87Ds were designated D-3Ns or D-3/ trops and fitted with night and tropical equipment. The D-4 designation applied to a prototype torpedo-bomber version which could carry a 750-905 kg aerial torpedo carried on a PVC 1006 B racks. The D-4 was to be converted fju87b D-3 airframes and operated fju87b the aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin. Other modifications included a flame eliminater and, unlike earlier D variants, fitted with two MG 151/20 cannon while the radio operator/rear gunner's ammunition supply was increased by 1,000 to 2,000 rounds.

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